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Michael Twardowski
Michael Twardowski
Email | Website | One Pager
Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute / Florida Atlantic University

ROSES Proposals

A New Semi-Analytical Ocean Color Model and Inversion Algorithm for PACE (2020)
Co-PI: Timothy Moore, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, Florida Atlantic University
Improving Retrieval of IOPs from Ocean Color Remote Sensing Through Explicit Consideration of the Volume Scattering Function (2013)

Science Meeting Presentations (10)

Atmospheric Correction for Retrieval of Ocean Spectra from Space (ACROSS)
Chowdhary, J., Cairns, B., Zhai, P., Xu, F., Frouin, R., Stamnes, S., Cetinić, I., Liu, L., Twardowski, M., Hu, Y., Mischenko, M., Ottaviani, M., Remer, L., Boss, E., Lee, Z., Zhang, X., Dierssen, H., and Ibrahim, A. (16-Jan-18). Topics: 1) RT benchmark results, 2) ACROSS-II hydrosol model, 3) plankton particle scattering, 4) ocean surface polarization studies, and 5) PACE RT chapter. Click here to view this presentation with audio.
Improving Retrieval of IOPs from Ocean Color Remote Sensing Through Explicit Consideration of the Volume Scattering Function
Twardowski, M. and Tonizzo, A. (16-Jan-18). Click here to view this presentation with audio.
Improving IOP Measurement Uncertainties for PACE Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications
Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Moore, T., McKee, D., Röttgers, R., and Stockley, N. (16-Jan-18). Click here to view this presentation with audio.
Assessing the Impact of a Variable Seawater Depolarization Ratio on IOP Retrievals
Moore, T., Sullivan, J., and Twardowski, M. (16-Jan-18)
Absorption Closure Cruise for PACE
Twardowski, M. (17-Jan-17)
Improving Retrieval of IOPs from Ocean Color Remote Sensing Through Explicit Consideration of the Volume Scattering Function
Twardowski, M., Sullivan, J., Tonizzo, A., Stockley, N., Freeman, S., and Slivkoff, M. (17-Jan-17). Click here to view this presentation with audio.
Improving IOP Measurement Uncertainties for PACE Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications
Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Moore, T., McKee, D., Röttgers, R., and Stockley, N. (17-Jan-17). Click here to view this presentation with audio.
Improving Retrieval of IOPs from Ocean Color Remote Sensing Through Explicit Consideration of the Volume Scattering Function
Twardowski, M., Sullivan, J., Tonizzo, A., Stockley, N., Freeman, S., and Slivkoff, M. (21-Jan-16)
Improving Retrieval of IOPs from Ocean Color Remote Sensing Through Explicit Consideration of the VSF
Twardowski, M. and Sullivan, J. (14-Jan-15)
Improving IOP Measurement Uncertainties for PACE Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications
Sullivan, J., Twardoswski, M. and Moore, T. (14-Jan-15)

Publications (66)

Chowdhary, J., Zhai, P-W., Boss, E., Dierssen, H., Frouin, R., Ibrahim, A., Lee, Z., Remer, L.A., Twardowski, M., Xu, F., Zhang, X., Ottaviani, M. Espinosa, W.R., and Ramon, D. (2019). Modeling Atmosphere-Ocean Radiative Transfer: A PACE Mission Perspective, Front. Earth Sci., 7, 100, doi: 10.3389/feart.2019.00100.
*Boss, E., Twardowski, M., McKee, D., Cetinić, I., and Slade, W. (2019). Volume 2: Beam Transmission and Attenuation Coefficients: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols, in A.R. Neeley, A. Mannino (eds.), Ocean Optics & Biogeochemistry Protocols for Satellite Ocean Colour Sensor Validation, IOCCG, Dartmouth, NS, Canada.
*Twardowski, M. and Tonizzo, A. (2018). Ocean Color Analytical Model Explicitly Dependent on the Volume Scattering Function, Appl. Sci., 8(12), 2684, doi: 10.3390/app8122684.
*Boss, E., D'Sa, E., Freeman, S., Fry, E., Mueller, J., Pegau, S., Reynolds, R., Roesler, C., Röttgers, R., Stramski, D., Twardowski, M., and Zaneveld, R. (2018). Volume 1: Inherent Optical Property Measurements and Protocols: Absorption Coefficient, in A.R. Neeley, A. Mannino (eds.), Ocean Optics & Biogeochemistry Protocols for Satellite Ocean Colour Sensor Validation, IOCCG, Dartmouth, NS, Canada.
Ottaviani, M., Foster, R., Gilerson, A., Ibrahim, A., Carrizo, C., El-Habashi, A., Cairns, B., Chowdhary, J., Hostetler, C., Hair, J., Burton, S., Hu, Y., Twardowski, M., Stockley, N., Gray, D., Slade, W., and Cetinić, I. (2018). Airborne and Shipborne Polarimetric Measurements Over Open Ocean and Coastal Waters: Intercomparisons and Implications for Spaceborne Observations, Rem. Sens. Envir., 206, 375-390, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.12.015.
Werdell, P.J., McKinna, L.I.W., Boss, E., Ackleson, S.G., Craig, S.E., Gregg, W.W., Lee, Z., Maritorena, S., Roesler, C.S., Rousseaux, C.S., Stramski, D., Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M., Tzortziou, M., and Zhang, X. (2018). An Overview of Approaches and Challenges for Retrieving Marine Inherent Optical Properties from Ocean Color Remote Sensing, Prog. Oceanogr., 160, 186-212, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2018.01.001.
*Twardowski, M. and Tonizzo, A. (2017). Scattering and Absorption Effects on Asymptotic Light Fields in Seawater, Opt. Express, 25(15), 18122-18130, doi: 10.1364/OE.25.018122.
Zamankhan, H, Westrick, J., Anscombe, F.R. Stumpf, R., Wynne, T.T., Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Moore, T., and Choi, H. (2016). Chapter 3: Sustainable Monitoring of Algal Blooms, in: Sustainable Water Management and Technologies (D.H. Chen, ed.), Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.
Sun, B., Kattawar, G.W., Yang, P., Twardowski, M.S., and Sullivan, J.M. (2016). Simulation of the Scattering Properties of a Chain-forming Triangular Prism Oceanic Diatom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 178, 390-399, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.02.035.
Valente, A., Sathyendranath, S., Brotas, V., Groom, S., Grant, M., Taberner, M., Antoine, D., Arnone, R., Balch, W. M., Barker, K., Barlow, R., Bélanger, S., Berthon, J.-F., Beşiktepe, Ş., Brando, V., Canuti, E., Chavez, F., Claustre, H., Crout, R., Frouin, R., García-Soto, C., Gibb, S.W., Gould, R., Hooker, S., Kahru, M., Klein, H., Kratzer, S., Loisel, H., McKee, D., Mitchell, B.G., Moisan, T., Muller-Karger, F., O'Dowd, L., Ondrusek, M., Poulton, A.J., Repecaud, M., Smyth, T., Sosik, H.M., Twardowski, M., Voss, K., Werdell, J., Wernand, M., and Zibordi, G. (2016). A Compilation of Global Bio-optical In Situ Data for Ocean-colour Satellite Applications, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8(1), 235-252, doi: 10.5194/essd-8-235-2016.
Twardowski, M., Sullivan, J. and Dalgleish, F. (2016). Studying Undisturbed Particle Fields in the Ocean Novel Instrument Suite for More Representative Particle Measurements, Sea Technol, 57(2), 15-19.
Gu, Y., Carrizo, C., Gilerson, A.A., Parrish C. Brady, P.D., Cummings, M.E., Twardowski, M.S., Sullivan, J.M., Ibrahim, A.I., and Kattawar, G.W. (2016). Polarimetric Imaging and Retrieval of Target Polarization Characteristics in Underwater Environment, Appl. Opt., 55(3), 626-637, doi: 10.1364/AO.55.000626.
Jay, D.A., Talke, S.A., Hudson, A., and Twardowski, M. (2015). Estuary Turbidity Maxima Revisited: Instrumental Approaches, Remote Sensing, Modeling Studies, and New Directions, in: Fluvial-Tidal Sedimentology, Developments in Sedimentology, 68 (P. Ashworth et al., eds.), 49-109, ISBN: 9780444635297.
Brady, P., Gilerson, A., Kattawar, G., Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Dierssen, H., Gao, M., Travis, K., Etheredge, R.I., Tonizzo, A., Ibrahim, A., Carrizo, C., Gu, Y., Russell, B., Mislinski, K., Zhao, S., Tonizzo, A., and Cummings, M. (2015). Open-Ocean Fish Reveal an Omnidirectional Solution to Camouflage in Polarized Environments, Science, 350(6263), 965-969, doi: 10.1126/science.aad5284.
Twardowski, M.S., Townsend, D.W., Sullivan, J.M., Koch, C., Pettigrew, N.R., O'Donnell, J., Stymiest, C., Salisbury, J., Moore, T., Young-Morse, R., Stockley, N.D., and Morrison, J.R. (2015). Developing the First Operational Nutrient Observatory for Ecosystem, Climate, and Hazard Monitoring for NERACOOS, Mar. Tech. Soc. J., 49(3), 72-80, doi: 10.4031/MTSJ.49.3.11.
Mouw, C.B., Greb, S., Aurin, D., DiGiacomo, P., Lee, Z., Twardowski, M., Binding, C. Hu, C., Ma, R., Moore, T., Moses, W., and Craig, S.E. (2015). Aquatic Color Radiometry Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters: Challenges and Recommendations for Future Satellite Missions, Remote Sens. Environ., 160, 15-30, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2015.02.001.
Churnside, J.H., Sullivan, J.M., and Twardowski, M.S. (2014). Lidar Extinction-to-backscatter Ratio of the Ocean, Opt. Express, 22(15), 18698-18706, doi: 10.1364/OE.22.018698.
Wei, J., M.R. Lewis, M.R., Van Dommelen, R., Zappa, C.J., and Twardowski, M.S. (2014). Wave-Induced Light Field Fluctuations in Measured Irradiance Depth Profiles: A Wavelet Analysis, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119(2), 1344-1364, doi: 10.1002/2013JC009572.
Randolph, K., Dierssen, H.M., Twardowski, M., Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A., and Zappa, C.J. (2014). Optical Measurements of Small Deeply-penetrating Bubble Populations Generated by Breaking Waves in the Southern Ocean, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JC009227.
Moore, T. Twardowski, M., and Koch, C. (2014). Developing Predictive Models for Cyanobacterial Blooms in Western Lake Erie, Lakeline, 34(1), 26-28.
Gilerson, A.A., Stepinski, J., Ibrahim, A.I., You, Y., Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Dierssen, H.M., Russell, B., Cummings, M.E., Brady, P., Ahmed, S.A., and Kattawar, G.W. (2013). Benthic Effects on the Polarization of Light in Shallow Waters, Appl. Opt., 52(36), 8685-8705, doi: 10.1364/AO.52.008685.
Chang, G., Jones, C., and Twardowski, M. (2013). Prediction of Optical Variability in Dynamic Nearshore Environments, Method. Oceanogr., 7, 63-78, doi: 10.1016/j.mio.2013.12.002.
Talapatra, S., Hong, J., McFarland, M., Nayak, A.R., Zhang, C., Katz, J., Sullivan, J., Twardowski, M., Rines, J., and Donaghay, P. (2013). Characterization of Biophysical Interactions in the Water Column Using In Situ Digital Holography, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 473, 29-51, doi: 10.3354/meps10049.
Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Zaneveld, J.R.V., and Moore, C.C. (2012). Measuring Optical Backscattering in Water, in Light Scattering Reviews 7 (A.A. Kokhanovsky, ed.), 189-224, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-21907-8_6.
Dickey, T.D., Banner, M.L., Bhandari, P., Boyd, T., Carvalho, L., Chang, G., Chao, Y., Czerski, H., Darecki, M., Dong, C., Farmer, D., Freeman, S., Gemmrich, J., Gernez, P., Hall-Patch, N., Holt, B., Jiang, S., Jones, C., Kattawar, G., LeBel, D., Lenain, L., Lewis, M., Liu, Y., Logan, L., Manov, D., Melville, W.K., Moline, M.A., Morison, R., Nencioli, F., Pegau, W.S., Reineman, B., Robbins, I., Röttgers, R., Schultz, H., Shen, L., Shinki, M., Slivkoff, M., Sokólski, M., Spada, F., Statom, N., Stramski, D., Sutherland, P., Twardowski, M., Vagle, S., Van Dommelen, R., Voss, K., Washburn, L., Wei, J., Wijesekera, H., Wurl, O., Yang, D., Yildiz, S., You, Y., Yue, D.K.P., Zaneveld, R., and Zappa, C.J. (2012). Recent Advances in the Study of Optical Variability in the Near-Surface and Upper Ocean, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 117(C7), C00H20, doi: 10.1029/2012JC007964.
Gleason, A.C.R., Voss, K.J., Gordon, H.R., Twardowski, M., Sullivan, J., Trees, C., Weidemann, A., Berthon, J.-F., Clark, D., and Lee, Z.-P. (2012). Detailed Validation of the Bidirectional Effect in Various Case I and Case II Waters, Opt. Express, 20(7), 7630-7645, doi: 10.1364/OE.20.007630.
Groundwater, H., Twardowski, M., Dierssen, H., Sciandre, A., and Freeman, S. (2012). Determining Oceanic Particle Size Distributions and Particle Composition: A New SEM-EDS Protocol with Validation and Comparison to Other Methods, J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 29, 433-449, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00026.1.
Twardowski, M., Zhang, X., Vagle, S., Sullivan, J., Freeman, S., Czerski, H., You, Y., Bi, L., and Kattawar, G. (2012). The Optical Volume Scattering Function in a Surf Zone Inverted to Derive Sediment and Bubble Particle Subpopulations, J. Geophys. Res., 117(C7), C00H17, doi: 10.1029/2011JC007347.
You, Y., Tonizzo, A., Gilerson, A.A., Cummings, M.E., Brady, P., Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Dierssen, H.M., Ahmed, S.A., and Kattawar, G.W. (2011). Measurements and Simulations of Polarization States of Underwater Light in Clear Oceanic Waters, Appl. Opt., 50(24), 4873-4893, doi: 10.1364/AO.50.004873.
Bhandari, P., Voss, K., Logan, L., and Twardowski, M. (2011). The Variation of the Polarized Downwelling Radiance Distribution With Depth in the Coastal and Clear Ocean, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116(C7), C00H10, doi:10.1029/2011JC007320.
Chang, G. and Twardowski, M. (2011). Effects of Physical Forcing and Particle Characteristics on Underwater Imaging Performance, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116(C7), C00H03, doi:10.1029/2011JC007098.
Czerski, H., Twardowski, M., Zhang, X., and Vagle, S. (2011). Resolving Size Distributions of Bubbles with Radii Less than 30 µm with Optical and Acoustical Methods, J. Geophys. Res., 116(C7), C00H11, doi: 10.1029/2011JC007177.
Lee, Z.P., Lance, V.P., Shang, S., Vaillancourt, R., Freeman, S., Lubac, B., Hargreaves, B.R., Del Castillo, C., Miller, R., Twardowski, M., and Wei, G. (2011). An Assessment of Optical Properties and Primary Production Derived from Remote Sensing in the Southern Ocean (SO GasEx), J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116(C4), C00F03, doi: 10.1029/2010JC006747.
Zhang, X., Twardowski, M., and Lewis, M. (2011). Retrieving Composition and Sizes of Oceanic Particle Subpopulations from the Volume Scattering Function, Appl. Opt., 50(9), 1240-1259, doi: 10.1364/AO.50.001240.
Voss, K.J., McLean, S., Lewis, M., Johnson, C., Flora, F., Feinholz, M., Yarbrough, M., Trees, C., Twardowski, M., and Clark, D. (2010). An Example Crossover Experiment for Testing New Vicarious Calibration Techniques for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry, J. Atmos. Ocean Tech., 27, 1747-1759, doi: 10.1175/2010JTECHO737.1.
Aurin, D. A., Dierssen, H.M., Twardowski, M.S., and Roesler, C.S. (2010). Optical Complexity in Long Island Sound and Implications for Coastal Ocean Color Remote Sensing, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C07011, doi: 10.1029/2009JC005837.
Chang, G., Twardowski, M.S., You, Y., Moline, M., Zhai, P., Freeman, S., Slivkoff, M., Nencioli, F., and Kattawar, G. (2010). Platform Effects of Optical Variability On the Prediction of Underwater Visibility, Appl. Opt., 49(15), 2784-2796, doi: 10.1364/AO.49.002784.
Nencioli, F., Chang, G., Twardowski, M., and Dickey, T.D. (2010). Optical Characterization of an Eddy-Induced Diatom Bloom West of the Island of Hawaii, Biogeosciences, 7, 151-162, doi: 10.5194/bg-7-151-2010.
Sullivan, J.M. and Twardowski, M.S. (2009). Angular Shape of the Volume Scattering Function in the Backwards Direction, Appl. Opt., 48(35), 6811-6819, doi: 10.1364/AO.48.006811.
Zhang, X., Hu, L., Twardowski, M.S., and Sullivan, J.M. (2009). Scattering by Solutions of Major Sea Salts, Opt. Express, 17(22), 19580-19585, doi: 10.1364/OE.17.019580.
Gordon, H.R., Lewis, M.R., McLean, S.D., Twardowski, M.S., Freeman, S.A., Voss, K.J., and Boynton, G.C. (2009). Spectra of Particulate Backscattering in Natural Waters, Opt. Express, 17(18), 16192-16208, doi: 10.1364/OE.17.016192.
Zhou, J., Tonizzo, A., Gilerson, A., Twardowski, M., Gray, D., Weidemann, A., Arnone, R., Gross, B., Moshary, F., and Ahmed, S. (2009). Polarization Characteristics of Coastal Waters and Their Impact on In-Water Visibility, Proc. SPIE, 73170H, doi: 10.1117/12.820738.
Tonizzo, A., Zhou, J., Gilerson, A., Twardowski, M., Gray, D., Arnone, R., Gross, B., Moshary, F., and Ahmed, S. (2009). Polarization Measurements in Coastal Waters: Hyperspectral and Multiangular Analysis, Opt. Express, 17(7), 5666-5683, doi: 10.1364/OE.17.005666.
Glenn, S., Jones, C., Twardowski, M., Bowers, L., Kerfoot, J., Kohut, J., Webb, D., and Schofield, O. (2008). Glider Observations of Sediment Resuspension in a Middle Atlantic Bight Fall Transition Storm, Limnol. Oceanogr., 53(5, Part II), 2180-2196, doi: 10.4319/lo.2008.53.5_part_2.2180.
Huot, Y., Morel, A., Twardowski, M., Stramski, D., and Reynolds, R. (2008). Particle Optical Backscattering Along a Chlorophyll Gradient in the Upper Layer of the Eastern South Pacific, Biogeosciences, 5, 495-507, doi: 10.5194/bg-5-495-2008.
Stramski, D., Reynolds, R.A., Babin, M., Kaczmarek, S., Lewis, M.R., Röttgers, R., Sciandra, A., Stramska, M., Twardowski, M.S., Franz, B.A., and Claustre, H. (2008). Relationships Between the Surface Concentration of Particulate Organic Carbon and Optical Properties in the Eastern South Pacific and Eastern Atlantic Oceans, Biogeosciences, 5, 171-201, doi:10.5194/bg-5-171-2008.
Twardowski, M.S., Claustre, H., Freeman, S.A., Stramski, D., and Huot, Y. (2007). Optical Backscattering Properties of the "Clearest" Natural Waters, Biogeosciences, 4, 1041-1058, doi: 10.5194/bg-4-1041-2007.
Huot, Y., Babin, M., Bruyant, F., Grob, C., Twardowski, M.S., and Claustre, H. (2007). Relationship Between Photosynthetic Parameters and Different Proxies of Phytoplankton Biomass in the Subtropical Ocean, Biogeosciences, 4, 853-868, doi: 10.5194/bg-4-853-2007.
Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Zaneveld, J.R., Moore, C., Barnard, A., Donaghay, P.L., and Rhoades, B. (2006). Hyperspectral Temperature and Salt Dependencies of Absorption by Water and Heavy Water in the 400-750 nm Spectral Range, Appl. Opt., 45(21), 5294-5309, doi: 10.1364/AO.45.005294.
Sullivan, J.M., Twardowski, M.S., Donaghay, P.L., and Freeman, S. (2005). Using Optical Scattering to Discriminate Particle Types in Coastal Waters, Appl. Opt., 44(9), 1667-1680, doi: 10.1364/AO.44.001667.
Zaneveld, J.R.V., Twardowski, M.S., Lewis, M., and Barnard, A. (2005). Radiative Transfer And Remote Sensing, in: Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Waters (R. Miller, C. Del Castillo, and B. Mckee, eds.), 1-20, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-3100-7_4.
Twardowski, M.S., Lewis, M., Barnard, A., and Zaneveld, J.R.V. (2005). In-Water Instrumentation and Platforms for Ocean Color Remote Sensing Applications, in: Remote Sensing of Coastal Aquatic Waters (R. Miller, C. Del Castillo, and B. Mckee, eds.), 69-100, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-3100-7_4.
Twardowski, M.S., Boss, E., Sullivan, J.M., and Donaghay, P.L. (2004). Modeling Spectral Absorption by Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), Mar. Chem., 89(1-4), 69-88, doi: 10.1016/j.marchem.2004.02.008.
Boss, E., Pegau, W.S., Lee, M., Twardowski, M.S., Shybanov, E., Korotaev, G., and Baratange, F. (2004). The Particulate Backscattering Ratio at LEO 15 and its Use to Study Particles Composition and Distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 109(C1), C01014, doi: 10.1029/2002JC001514.
McManus, M.M., Alldredge, A.L., Barnard, A., Boss, E., Case, J., Cowles, T.J., Donaghay, P.L., Eisner, L.B., Gifford, D.J., Greenlaw, C.F., Herren, C., Holliday, D.V., Johnson, D., Macintyre, S., McGehee, D., Osborn, T.R., Perry, M.J., Pieper, R., Rines, J.E.B., Smith, D.C., Sullivan, J.M., Talbot, M.K., Twardowski, M.S., Weidemann, A., and Zaneveld, J.R. (2003). Characteristics, Distribution and Persistence of Thin Layers Over a 48 Hour Period, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 261, 1-19, doi: 10.3354/meps261001.
Eisner, L., Twardowski, M.S., Cowles, T.J., and Perry, M.J. (2003). Resolving Phytoplankton Photoprotective:Photosynthetic Carotenoid Ratios on Fine Scales Using In Situ Spectral Absorption Measurements, Limnol. Oceanogr., 48(2), 632-646, doi: 10.4319/lo.2003.48.2.0632.
Miller, R., Twardowski, M.S., Moore, C., and Casagrande, C. (2003). The Dolphin: Technology to Support Remote Sensing Bio-Optical Algorithm Development and Applications, Backscatter, 14(2), 8-12.
Twardowski, M.S. and Donaghay, P.L. (2002). Photobleaching of Aquatic Dissolved Materials: Absorption Removal, Spectral Alteration, and Their Interrelationship, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 107(C8), 6.1-6.12, doi: 10.1029/1999JC000281.
Rines, J.E.B., Donaghay, P.L., Dekshenieks, M., Sullivan, J.M., and Twardowski, M.S. (2002). Thin Layers and Camouflage: Hidden Pseudo-Nitzschia Spp. (Bacillariophyceae) Populations in a Fjord in the San Juan Islands, Washington, U.S.A., Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 225, 123-137 doi: 10.3354/meps225123.
Dekshenieks, M.M., Donaghay, P.L., Sullivan, J.M., Rines, J.E.B., Osborn, T.R., and Twardowski, M.S. (2001). Temporal and Spatial Occurrence of Thin Phytoplankton Layers in Relation to Physical Processes, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 223, 61-71, doi: 10.3354/meps223061.
Boss, E., Twardowski, M.S., and Herring, S. (2001). Shape of the Particulate Beam Attenuation Spectrum and its Inversion to Obtain the Shape of the Particulate Size Distribution, Appl. Opt., 40(27), 4885-4893, doi: 10.1364/AO.40.004885.
Twardowski, M.S., Boss, E., Macdonald, J.B., Pegau, W.S., Barnard, A.H., and Zaneveld, J.R.V. (2001). A Model for Estimating Bulk Refractive Index from the Optical Backscattering Ratio and the Implications For Understanding Particle Composition in Case I and Case II Waters, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 106(C7), 14129-14142, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000404.
Boss, E., Pegau, W.S. Gardner, W.D., Zaneveld, J.R.V., Barnard, A.H., Twardowski, M.S., G.C. Chang, G.C., and Dickey. T.D. (2001). Spectral Particulate Attenuation in the Bottom Boundary Layer of a Continental Shelf, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 106(C5), 9509-9516, doi: 10.1029/2000JC900077.
Twardowski, M.S. and Donaghay, P.L. (2001). Separating In Situ And Terrigenous Sources of Absorption By Dissolved Material in Coastal Waters, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 106(C2), 2545-2560, doi: 10.1029/1999JC000039.
Twardowski, M.S. and Barnard, A. (2001). Observing the Ocean: Sensing Technology and Observation Platforms, Maritimes, 43(4).
Twardowski, M.S., Sullivan, J.M., Donaghay, P.L., and Zaneveld, R.V. (1999). Microscale Quantification of the Absorption by Dissolved and Particulate Material in Coastal Waters with an ac-9, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 16, 691-707, doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(1999)016<0691:MQOTAB>2.0.CO;2.
*Funded by PACE